Alexander Watson

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This research aim is to look at the role of women throughout history. Indian society has been a traditional society, experiencing dramatic changes on all fronts, including social, psychological, and political issues. Women's status in India has traditionally been regarded as secondary. They were forced to live a prudish lifestyle and were not considered men. She was expected to stay within the family structure and only bear and rear children. Their domestic work was regarded as worthless. So, how come women are allowed to participate in sports? The Ministry of Sports (SAI) has several programs, but none specifically for women. Even some big-wigs treat women's sports events as nothing better than a 'tamasha,' and the funds are being utilized elsewhere.

 The study aimed to look at men and women volleyball players’ mental toughness, will to win, and competitive sports anxiety levels. The study included 40 volleyball players (N1=20 males, N2=20 females) who had competed at the inter-university level at Guru Nanak Dev University in Amritsar. The participants ranged in age from 18 to 27 years old. The subjects for this study were chosen using a basic random selection procedure. The subjects for this study were selected using a basic random selection procedure. Mental toughness was tested using the “Alan Goldberg questionnaire,” The will to win was assessed using the “Anand Kumar questionnaire” to collect data for the study. P.S Shukla’s questionnaire was used to examine competitive anxiety, while R. Martin’s SCAT (Sports Competition Anxiety Test) questionnaire was used to assess competitive anxiety. The information for this study came from the responses supplied by the chosen subjects in the questionnaires, which were graded according to the key. The properties of the obtained data were summarized using descriptive statistics, and then a t-test was used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the two groups. The significance level for testing the hypothesis was chosen at 0.05, deemed adequate for the current investigation. The study found that while there was no significant difference in a will to win and competitive anxiety level between male and female volleyball players, there was a significant difference in Mental Toughness. 

Keywords - Mental Toughness, Anxiety, and will to win.

This study aims to find the kinematic pattern of the preferred and non-preferred foot during the instep kick. In the study of the Angular velocity of the hip joint (AVHJ) and angular velocity of knee joint (AVKJ) variables are studied. These variables show the flow of the instep kick. For the collection of data, five inter-university players were selected from Punjabi University Patiala. A test was administered before the data collection. To check the accuracy of the instep kick, a valid J T Finnoff's method (2002) was administered. Five trials were given to each player with both preferred and non- preferred feet. The motion of the kick was captured with a higher- quality camera. The mark was pointed on the target board of each kick during the whole process. To analyze the kinematic variable, silicon coach eight software was used. For the interpretations of the data, SPSS and MS Excel were used. Variable angular velocity of hip joint shows a significant difference between preferred and non- preferred foot during instep kick. But in the variable of the angular velocity of the knee joint did not show any significant difference between kicking with the preferred and non-preferred foot.

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) was first identified in December 2019 in China and caused clusters of respiratory illnesses. The highly transmittable viral infection is caused by the virus known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. The continuing COVID-19 epidemic is a global disaster on a scale never seen before in modern history, and its spread can be slowed with proper cleanliness and physical distancing.

Establishing and repeatedly emphasizing the importance of hygiene and physical distancing measures is essential to minimize disease transmission. The overall goal of reducing disease transmission has had a significant impact on sports and exercise. Geographic limits on outdoor exercise and the necessity to stay at home have lowered physical activity and increased sedentary behavior on an individual level. Within the sporting community, all forms of organized sport have been either canceled or postponed. These include everything from mass participation events like marathon races to financially successful football leagues and even the pinnacle of athletic achievement, the Summer Olympic Games. As the pandemic progresses, questions about exercise safety, resumption of sports activities, and managing infected athletes remain.

To achieve the purpose of the present study, thirty college men were randomly selected from G.G.N. Khalsa College, Civil Lines Ludhiana, and Arya College, Ludhiana. Their age ranged from 20 to 25 years. They were assigned to two groups, experimental group-I with fifteen boys who were given physical exercises training for 12 weeks, five days a week. The other group-II with fifteen boys, acted as the control group. The experimental group was be tested on physical fitness variables, namely speed, respiratory rate, and breath-holding time. The selected criterion variables speed was tested with 50 m dash; the respiratory rate was tested manually counted on the abdomen, and breath-holding time was tested with breath-holding time with the nose clip. The pre and post-test data were collected and treated with ANCOVA. The level of confidence was fixed at 0.05. The study results showed that the experimental group significantly improved selected physical fitness, physiological variables, namely speed, respiratory rate, and breath- holding time due to the impact of the physical exercises training program. The control group did not improve on selected physical fitness variables.

The purpose of the study was to ascertain the social and religious constraints affecting development of sports in Bangladesh employing the descriptive research tool i.e. Questionnaire. Separate questionnaires were developed for each category of respondents and administered to them personally. In as much as the responses were on a three-point Likert Scale, the data was analyzed using Chi-square method. The views of the respondents have been separately presented because questions for each category of respondents were different covering the aspects associated with the nature of their functions.